Final Thoughts in my Last Week of EDU 605: Differentiated Instruction

Snapshot of PREZI - Applied DIP for DHE

Here is a presentation I created as a differentiated instructional plan for dental hygiene education. Another eight weeks has passed and I find myself thinking about all of the things I’ve learned in this class. Certainly some of the strategies I’ve used in my work as a dental hygienist with regard to patient education were strategies of differentiation. Educating patients is not that different than educating students. Some things I have learned from experience have been confirmed in this class. For example, getting to know your learners is the first step to selecting an appropriate way to differentiate instruction. When I know the learner’s learning style preference, then I can implement strategies that support that style in a way that helps them to use the new information I present in a way that makes sense (Tomlinson, 2001).   After I get to know the learner, then I need to assess their prior knowledge. In the dental office setting, I may ask a patient to show me how they floss. From their demonstration I can then determine what they already know and I can begin my instruction from there. It does not make sense to just rattle on about a topic I know a lot about if the patient has no frame of reference or any knowledge related to the subject at hand. I think of differentiated instruction as a form of guided communication that supports the acquisition of knowledge and development of conceptual understanding. Every person/patient/student is different, therefore the way I teach cannot be based on the fallacy that everyone is the same and that everyone will learn like me. That is simply untrue.

View the presentation here:


Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms. Alexandria, Va: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development


Small Group Instruction: How is it Accomplished?


The blog assignment this week was to locate a video about a differentiated instructional strategy that is interesting to me. The strategy and video I selected is about preparing and managing small group instruction. I chose this strategy because it is familiar to me from the perspective of a student, but not as a teacher. I am a little bit of a social-butterfly so in the past I have always found group work to be fun and engaging. In a study of dental hygiene students, Mueller-Joseph and Nappo-Dattoma (2013), found that students who received instruction in a collaborative learning environment reported that they had a more positive disposition toward learning and had developed greater responsibility for their learning. In fact there are many ways small groups can differentiate learning such as, problem-solving, role playing, discussions, brainstorming and debate (Annamalai, Manivel, & Palanisamy, 2015). The video I selected suggested several important things I should consider when planning for small group work (Smartatmath, 2013). Here are the highlights of some things I learned.

  • Preparation is very important! I need to have a well-defined plan of meaningful activities for both the independent group(s) and the teacher group. Be very familiar with the goal and directions for group work.
  • Start with simply two groups, and then work up to more groups if necessary.
  • Establish effective classroom management (pattern and timing for student movement, appropriate noise levels, seating chart and/or room arrangement).
  • Provide ways for students to self-help when they become “stuck” so that they do not interrupt the teacher-assisted group.
  • Assess students prior to group work to identify the primary goal for the teacher-assisted group.
  • Create a means for accountability for individuals within each group.

I think I will plan to use a graphic or visual organizer to scaffold learning for students in groups without teacher assistance, this way they can help themselves when they get confused or lose direction (Tomlinson, 2001). According to Annamalai et al. (2015), most students perceived that group discussions “were interactive, friendly, innovative, [and] built interaction between teacher and student” (p. 19). It appears to me that group work is not only a great way support and differentiate learning, but is also enjoyable for students as well. It may be a little intimidating at first, but I think I will give this strategy a try. One component I would like to explore for further learning is the topic of classroom management. I believe once classroom management is established, maintaining it will be a little easier.

View the video about small instruction at the bottom of this post.


Annamalai, N., Manivel, R., & Palanisamy, R. (2015). Small group discussion: Students perspectives. International Journal Of Applied & Basic Medical Research, 5, 18-20. doi:10.4103/2229-516X.162257

Mueller-Joseph, L. J., & Nappo-Dattoma, L. (2013). Collaborative learning in pre-clinical dental hygiene education. Journal Of Dental Hygiene, 87(2), 64-72.

Smartatmath. (2013, January 3). Effective small group differentiated instruction [Video file]. Retrieved September 20, 2015 from

Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms. Alexandria, Va: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development

My Thoughts About Differentiated Instruction in Clinical Teaching

I Learn Poster

Recently I started working as an adjunct clinical instructor. In this setting I will work with dental students as they provide dental hygiene treatment to patients. I believe good teachers have an excellent understanding of the content they teach, experience with using that knowledge effectively, and that they take time to really get to know their students. Tomlinson and Moon (2013) stated that teachers should get to know their students and their leaning preferences because each student is different and has unique needs for learning. I feel it is important for teachers to be flexible in their approach to adapt to the needs of their students. Applying this concept to clinical teaching may mean that I spend extra time re-teaching previous instruction, but altering my presentation to accommodate the learning style of the student (Tomlinson & Moon, 2013). Building trust from my adult students as a new teacher and simply being new to the environment in which I am currently teaching is essential. I want them to be receptive to my instruction and trust that I know what I am talking about (Tomlinson, 2013).

coffee:tobacco stain

In class this week we discussed various ways in which differentiated instruction empowers students to make choices about their learning readiness, the process for learning and the product, which demonstrates their learning. One of the strategies that I keep thinking about in regards to the clinical teaching environment is student-teacher goal setting and learning contracts. By starting with an informal assessment of student understanding I can determine what a student knows about the learning target and then differentiate my instruction based on what I know of their learning preferences and their knowledge thus far. Student-teacher goal setting and learning contracts provide an opportunity for students, with guidance of the instructor to set a reasonable learning goal to demonstrate their understanding (Tomlinson, 2001). While teaching in the clinical setting, a student may have a patient with very heavy tobacco and coffee stain in which they are responsible for removing. An example of a student-teacher goal might be a discussion in which the student discusses plausible ways in which the stain can be removed. After they decide upon a course of action, the student carries out the process. In this same discussion, if I have gained the trust of the student they will be more likely to use my suggested approach based on my dental hygiene experience.


Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms. Alexandria, Va: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development

Tomlinson, C. A. (2013, July 30). Differentiation and the brain: A discussion with carol-ann tomlinson [Video file]. Retrieved September 13, 2015 from

Tomlinson, C. A., & Moon, T. R. (2013). Assessment and student success in a differentiated classroom. Alexandria, Va: Association for Supervision and Curriculum.