Final Thoughts in my Last Week of EDU 605: Differentiated Instruction

Snapshot of PREZI - Applied DIP for DHE

Here is a presentation I created as a differentiated instructional plan for dental hygiene education. Another eight weeks has passed and I find myself thinking about all of the things I’ve learned in this class. Certainly some of the strategies I’ve used in my work as a dental hygienist with regard to patient education were strategies of differentiation. Educating patients is not that different than educating students. Some things I have learned from experience have been confirmed in this class. For example, getting to know your learners is the first step to selecting an appropriate way to differentiate instruction. When I know the learner’s learning style preference, then I can implement strategies that support that style in a way that helps them to use the new information I present in a way that makes sense (Tomlinson, 2001).   After I get to know the learner, then I need to assess their prior knowledge. In the dental office setting, I may ask a patient to show me how they floss. From their demonstration I can then determine what they already know and I can begin my instruction from there. It does not make sense to just rattle on about a topic I know a lot about if the patient has no frame of reference or any knowledge related to the subject at hand. I think of differentiated instruction as a form of guided communication that supports the acquisition of knowledge and development of conceptual understanding. Every person/patient/student is different, therefore the way I teach cannot be based on the fallacy that everyone is the same and that everyone will learn like me. That is simply untrue.

View the presentation here: http://prezi.com/15adrkjeojyn/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share

Reference

Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms. Alexandria, Va: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development

Small Group Instruction: How is it Accomplished?

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The blog assignment this week was to locate a video about a differentiated instructional strategy that is interesting to me. The strategy and video I selected is about preparing and managing small group instruction. I chose this strategy because it is familiar to me from the perspective of a student, but not as a teacher. I am a little bit of a social-butterfly so in the past I have always found group work to be fun and engaging. In a study of dental hygiene students, Mueller-Joseph and Nappo-Dattoma (2013), found that students who received instruction in a collaborative learning environment reported that they had a more positive disposition toward learning and had developed greater responsibility for their learning. In fact there are many ways small groups can differentiate learning such as, problem-solving, role playing, discussions, brainstorming and debate (Annamalai, Manivel, & Palanisamy, 2015). The video I selected suggested several important things I should consider when planning for small group work (Smartatmath, 2013). Here are the highlights of some things I learned.

  • Preparation is very important! I need to have a well-defined plan of meaningful activities for both the independent group(s) and the teacher group. Be very familiar with the goal and directions for group work.
  • Start with simply two groups, and then work up to more groups if necessary.
  • Establish effective classroom management (pattern and timing for student movement, appropriate noise levels, seating chart and/or room arrangement).
  • Provide ways for students to self-help when they become “stuck” so that they do not interrupt the teacher-assisted group.
  • Assess students prior to group work to identify the primary goal for the teacher-assisted group.
  • Create a means for accountability for individuals within each group.

I think I will plan to use a graphic or visual organizer to scaffold learning for students in groups without teacher assistance, this way they can help themselves when they get confused or lose direction (Tomlinson, 2001). According to Annamalai et al. (2015), most students perceived that group discussions “were interactive, friendly, innovative, [and] built interaction between teacher and student” (p. 19). It appears to me that group work is not only a great way support and differentiate learning, but is also enjoyable for students as well. It may be a little intimidating at first, but I think I will give this strategy a try. One component I would like to explore for further learning is the topic of classroom management. I believe once classroom management is established, maintaining it will be a little easier.

View the video about small instruction at the bottom of this post.

References

Annamalai, N., Manivel, R., & Palanisamy, R. (2015). Small group discussion: Students perspectives. International Journal Of Applied & Basic Medical Research, 5, 18-20. doi:10.4103/2229-516X.162257

Mueller-Joseph, L. J., & Nappo-Dattoma, L. (2013). Collaborative learning in pre-clinical dental hygiene education. Journal Of Dental Hygiene, 87(2), 64-72.

Smartatmath. (2013, January 3). Effective small group differentiated instruction [Video file]. Retrieved September 20, 2015 from https://youtu.be/AF3T2aZM3ko

Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms. Alexandria, Va: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development

My Thoughts About Differentiated Instruction in Clinical Teaching

I Learn Poster

Recently I started working as an adjunct clinical instructor. In this setting I will work with dental students as they provide dental hygiene treatment to patients. I believe good teachers have an excellent understanding of the content they teach, experience with using that knowledge effectively, and that they take time to really get to know their students. Tomlinson and Moon (2013) stated that teachers should get to know their students and their leaning preferences because each student is different and has unique needs for learning. I feel it is important for teachers to be flexible in their approach to adapt to the needs of their students. Applying this concept to clinical teaching may mean that I spend extra time re-teaching previous instruction, but altering my presentation to accommodate the learning style of the student (Tomlinson & Moon, 2013). Building trust from my adult students as a new teacher and simply being new to the environment in which I am currently teaching is essential. I want them to be receptive to my instruction and trust that I know what I am talking about (Tomlinson, 2013).

coffee:tobacco stain

In class this week we discussed various ways in which differentiated instruction empowers students to make choices about their learning readiness, the process for learning and the product, which demonstrates their learning. One of the strategies that I keep thinking about in regards to the clinical teaching environment is student-teacher goal setting and learning contracts. By starting with an informal assessment of student understanding I can determine what a student knows about the learning target and then differentiate my instruction based on what I know of their learning preferences and their knowledge thus far. Student-teacher goal setting and learning contracts provide an opportunity for students, with guidance of the instructor to set a reasonable learning goal to demonstrate their understanding (Tomlinson, 2001). While teaching in the clinical setting, a student may have a patient with very heavy tobacco and coffee stain in which they are responsible for removing. An example of a student-teacher goal might be a discussion in which the student discusses plausible ways in which the stain can be removed. After they decide upon a course of action, the student carries out the process. In this same discussion, if I have gained the trust of the student they will be more likely to use my suggested approach based on my dental hygiene experience.

References

Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms. Alexandria, Va: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development

Tomlinson, C. A. (2013, July 30). Differentiation and the brain: A discussion with carol-ann tomlinson [Video file]. Retrieved September 13, 2015 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mLzCqoPFxRw

Tomlinson, C. A., & Moon, T. R. (2013). Assessment and student success in a differentiated classroom. Alexandria, Va: Association for Supervision and Curriculum.

How Can I Say This Differently? Are You Listening To Me?

Focus

In the past two weeks I’ve been learning about motivation, emotion and attention.  I wanted to write a little about this because of how closely they relate to dental hygiene and  how they influence each other.  Recently I was talking with a friend (non-dental related) who shared her thoughts about going to the dentist.  She said “I always get anxious about being scolded.” My first thought was: She’s not flossing.  Maybe it’s true, maybe it’s not. Regardless, as a dental hygienist and future educator I know I shouldn’t start a conversation by telling her what I think she needs to do.  I’ve learned that negative emotions can be a distraction, dividing a person’s attention away from me, and limiting their ability to process incoming information (Gazzaley, 2011).  Furthermore, emotions effect our drive for action, but if a person feels as though they have no choice, they may rebel against what has been suggested simply because it was not their decision (Thagard, 1996).  As dental hygienists and educators it’s important to be able to interpret the emotional state of our patients or students.  It’s our nature to want to help people, but we need to have a clear understanding of our students (or patients) so we can create a supportive environment that inspires curiosity and makes learning worth it.

Are you Listening to me???

When I think about teaching I conjure up a picture of a group of students or a patient looking me in the eyes with their full attention.  This may not always be the reality, but I know that in order for someone to learn, they need to be present, in the moment; I need their attention.  Thagard (1996) stated that emotions shouldn’t be viewed as this annoying, random characteristic of being human, but rather something that is closely related to a person’s appraisal of what’s going on, not only in their mind but of what’s going on around them. Emotions have a big impact on a person’s ability to pay attention.  If we can’t have their undivided attention, communication can be misinterpreted or completely dismissed.

Using the example of my friend who feels anxious about going to the dentist, her anxiety will undoubtedly have an effect on her desire to pay attention and be open and receptive to what her dental hygienist has to say.  Emotions impact a learner’s motivation in both good and bad ways.  Thagard (1996) described emotions as the result of neuron firing patterns in the brain that are connected to and defined as images, mental representations, and analogs (their feelings related to the situation). The emotional connection will either increase or decrease the learner’s motivation depending on how the mental representation is interpreted.  Perkins (2009) stated that intrinsic motivation was a better predictor of academic success than extrinsic motivation, which is especially true for adults.

Miller and Rollnick (2009) discuss motivational interviewing as a model of conversation to “increase the client’s strength of expressed motivation for a target behavior change, and to diminish defenses of the status quo” (p. 135).  Patients are likely quite accustomed to the typical approach in dental settings of Show-Tell-Do, where we show them what’s going on, tell them what to do and hope that they will decide then that what we’ve  told them is what they want to do, but usually this isn’t the case.  Bray, Catley, Voelker, Liston, & Williams (2013) stated that motivational interviewing “is characterized by an underlying philosophy or “spirit” that encompasses partnership, acceptance, compassion and evocation (of patient motivation and strengths) as well as specific processes…and skills” (p. 1662).  The point is that patients and students alike have both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations.  Their emotional state and motivation influences their perception and drives their attention (Gazzaley, 2011).

Make “The Game” Worth Playing

Perkins (2009) talks about making “the game” worth playing by finding topics that our students (or patients) can relate.  Find something that sparks curiosity makes them want to learn.  Support learners by providing small, approachable step-by-step skills or goals that will help to build their confidence in pursing something new. “The game” is the big picture. It’s what we are trying to help our students (or patients) to learn.  Perkins (2009) stated “one fine way of stoking enthusiasm is choice…when learners feel that they have a choice about just where they focus their attention and just how they proceed, they are more likely to show intrinsic motivation and, along with, this broader deeper learning” (p.71).

Finally, with regard to my anxious friend, if her dental hygienist was receptive to her emotional state and considered ways in which to make “the game” worth playing my friend might one day feel differently about her future dental visits.  Using the approach I’ve discussed here she could be supported in a way that positively influences her emotions, fuels her intrinsic motivation, and directs her attention toward learning.

Homer Simpson - Have you been flossing?

References

Bray, K. K., Catley, D., Voelker, M. A., Liston, R., Williams, K. B. (2013). Motivational interviewing in dental hygiene education: Curriculum modification and evaluation. Journal of Dental Education. 77(12)/1662-9. Retrieved February 8, 2015 from: http://www.jdentaled.org/content/77/12/1662.long

Gazzaley, A. (2011, April 17). TEDxSanJoseCA – Adam Gazzaley, MD, PhD – Brain: Memory and multitasking. Retrieved February 6, 2015 from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tiANn5PZ4BI

Miller, W. R., Rollnick, S. (2009). Ten things that motivational interview is not. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 37, 129-140. Retrieved on February 8, 2015 from: http://ihatetherapy.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/miller-09-pdf1.pdf

Perkins, D. (2009). Making learning whole: How seven principles of teaching can change education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Thagard, P. (1996). Mind: Introduction to Cognitive Science. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Additional Resources

Motivational Interviewing in Dental Hygiene Education: Curriculum Modification and Evaluation – An article from the Journal of Dental Education, December 2013. http://www.jdentaled.org/content/77/12/1662.long

Motivational Interviewing: Helping People Change (Applications of Motivational Interviewing) – A book for clinicians to help guide people and foster their intrinsic motivation to create change.  Available on Amazon.com

Consciousness vs. Subconscious Thinking – A video by Sentis